Lista de pessoas consideradas um fundador em um campo de humanidades



SubjectFather / motherReasonAbstract artHilma af Klint For "[inventing] an abstract vocabulary blending biomorphic and geometric forms," that predates Wassily Kandisky. AnimationLotte Reiniger

Margaret J. Winkler

Reiniger: For making The Adventures of Prince Achmed, "[t]he first full-length animation movie of film history."

Winkler: Por ser "uma das primeiras produtoras de animação, com sucessos internacionais como o desenho animado, Felix the Cat".

AnimeŌten ShimokawaJun'ichi KōuchiSeitaro Kitayama Australian Studio potteryWilliam Merric BoydCinematographyAlice Guy-Blaché For being the first female film director and "among the first to employ techniques like close-ups, hand-tinted color, and synchronized sound. " DadaismBeatrice Wood For her involvement in the movement, which stemmed from her enjoyment of, upon her own admission, "being subversive." Danish paintingNikolaj Abraham Abildgaard FashionCoco Chanel

Jeanne Lanvin

Vivienne Westwood

Chanel: For "revolutionizing how [people] dress, she helped form a new ideal of what a fashion brand could be."

Lanvin: Para a fundação, "uma das mais antigas casas de moda francesa em operação hoje", através da qual ela popularizou o vestido de estilo de estilo.

Westwood: Para "[vender] os tópicos personalizados de Teddy Boy que se transformaram em punk ... [e com sua coleção de piratas de 1981 mudando] A maneira como as pessoas pareciam ... [e criando] uma nova linguagem de roupas".

Modern fashion photographyNorman Parkinson For taking his models and photoshoots beyond the confines of the studio.Modern French cookingEugénie Brazier For her Lyonnaise-style of cooking, becoming the first woman to ever hold three Michelin stars and at age 38, the first individual to hold six simultaneously, a record that lasted for 65 years until 1998, which led Curnonsky to deem her as "the greatest chef in the world." French New Wave cinemaAgnès Varda For "directing celebrated films including Cléo from 5 to 7, Happiness and The Creatures." Gothic architectureAbbot Suger Built the first Gothic church at the Abbey of St DennisHarlem Renaissance (sculpture)Augusta Savage For being "a talented sculptor in her own right, [as well as] the first African American wom[a]n to open her own art gallery, the ‘Salon of Contemporary Negro Art’." MangaOsamu Tezuka Oil paintingJan van Eyck For experimenting with the medium to remarkable effectPhotojournalismMathew Brady Pop artRichard Hamilton New Puerto Rican cuisineAlfredo Ayala "[F]or being the manager of a new local gastronomic movement in times of ‘nouvelle cuisine’, which sought to exalt the richness of Puerto Rican cuisine to position it in haute cuisine," ..."[becoming] the best ambassador of the island." Scottish country dancingFrancis Peacock Spanish cuisinePenelope Casas

María Mestayer [es]

Casas: For "demonstrating the breadth of regional Spanish cuisine."

Mestayer: Por ser "[uma] mulher à frente de seu tempo que teve que lutar contra os preconceitos sociais de uma Espanha classista e enfrentou uma guerra civil das cozinhas".

Stop-motion clay animationArt Clokey[citation needed]SurrealismAndré Breton

Dorothea Tanning


SubjectFather / motherReasonSpamGary Thuerk Penned the first message that advertised the availability of a new model of Digital Equipment Corporation computers to 393 recipients on ARPANET in 1978.


SubjectFather / motherLife spanReasonAfghan educationSakena Yacoobi Still livingFor her work through the Afghan Institute of Learning, which " empower women and bring education and health services to poor women and girls in rural and urban areas, serving hundreds of thousands of women and children a year." American educationMary McLeod Bethune

Horace Mann



Bethune: For her "high standards and...[demonstration] of what educated African Americans could do," through her school, which later became Bethune–Cookman University.

MANN: defendido para escolas comuns e educação não -sectária.

American Catholic educationMary Elizabeth Lange (c. 1784–1882)For founding the first Catholic school in the United States for children of color as well as the first religious community of women of African-American descent. Argentinian educationDomingo Faustino Sarmiento

Juana Paula Manso



Sarmiento: For improving the country's education system.

MANSO: Para educar as mulheres e defender sua educação igual.

Costa Rican educationCarmen Lyra (1888–1949)For founding the Escuela Maternal ("Maternal School"), the first Montessori school in Costa Rica in 1925. Dominican educationSalomé Ureña (1850–1898)For founding "the Instituto de Señoritas ("Young Ladie's Institute"), which became the first center devoted exclusively to the training of teachers," in the Dominican Republic and called as such by Chiqui Vicioso [es]. Japanese language education in RomaniaAngela Hondru Still living"[F]or her role in saving Japanese studies from extinction in her country in the 1970s and for her more than 30 years of dedication to the field since then." Namibian educationOttilie Abrahams (1937–2018)For "[forming] the Namibian National Nationhood Programme, a consortium of NGOs working in the areas of education and agro-ecology." Nicaraguan educationJosefa Toledo de Aguerri (1866–1962)"[F]or her work as a teacher of

gerações, "Educando as crianças Pinolero como os" futuros cidadãos ... [de] amanhã que integrarão a coletividade da nação ".

Paraguayan educationRosa Peña Guanes (1843–1899)For founding twenty-four girl's schools and the National Asylum in Paraguay. Early education in PeruEmilia Barcia Boniffatti (1904–1986)For founding the first preschool in the Peruvian Amazonia. Puerto Rican educationJaime Benítez Rexach

Celestina Corordinária Cordero


(1787-1862) (1790-1868)

Benítez: Called as such by Herman Badillo for "there [being] no man in this country who has done more to bring up the level of educational opportunities to poor people than [him]."

Celestina: Para fundar a primeira escola para meninas em Porto Rico.

Rafael: Por fornecer educação gratuita às crianças, independentemente da raça ou da posição social.

Saudi Arabian educationIffat bint Mohammad Al Thunayan (1916– 2000)For founding "the Taif model school and the first girl's college in Saudi Arabia."Tampa educationElecta Lee (1808–1870)For "[opening] what is believed to be the first local school," in Tampa. Washington D. C. educationMyrtilla Miner (1815–1864)For "providing a quality education for all children in the District of Columbia regardless of race, creed or class," through her Normal School for Colored Girls, which later became the University of the District of Columbia. Western Cape educationHelen Zille Still livingFor her "hands-on approach" tenure as Western Cape MEC for Education.


SubjectFather / motherReasonAfrican-American historyArturo Alfonso Schomburg For his "[research and raising] awareness of the great contributions that Afro-Latin Americans and African Americans have made to society,...[being] an important intellectual figure in the Harlem Renaissance [and, over] the years, [collecting] literature, art, slave narratives, and other materials of African history, which were purchased to become the basis of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, named in his honor, at the New York Public Library (NYPL) branch in Harlem.American historyPocahontas Ecclesiastical historyEusebius of Caesarea Because of his work in recording the history of the early Christian churchFrench historyAndré Duchesne HistoriographyIbn Khaldun Muqaddimah (Prolegomena) (1377)HistoryHerodotusThucydidesThe HistoriesHistory of the Peloponnesian WarHistory of scienceGeorge Sarton Founded Isis (1912) and wrote Introduction to the History of Science (1927)Modern historyLeonardo Bruni Philosophy of historyIbn Khaldun Muqaddimah (Prolegomena) (1377)Public administrationWoodrow Wilson "The Study of Administration" in Political Science Quarterly, June 1887.Puerto Rican historySalvador Brau

Alejandro Tapia y Rivera


SubjectFather / motherReasonCriminal identificationAlphonse Bertillon Created a database for criminalsFingerprintingJuan Vucetic

Idioma e literatura

SubjectFather / motherReasonModern African literatureFlora Nwapa For "[setting] the stage for the emergence of female writers in Nigeria and other African countries," by being "the first African woman to publish a book in English." American folkloreRichard Dorson American literatureMark Twain American novelSusanna Rowson For writing one of the "best-selling novels of the time...Charlotte, A Tale of Truth." Canadian Indigenous literatureE. Pauline Johnson For "her impact of Indigenous writers" due in part to "[writing] a critique of the treatment of First Nations women in her article: "A Strong Race Opinion: the Indian Girl in Modern Fiction," in which she protested the obvious racism in the novels about First Nations women." Canadian literatureMargaret Atwood

Margaret Laurence

Atwood: For "[seeming] capable of embracing and exposing the truth of the darkness that lurks in the shadows of our world[, s]he and her work are as relevant as ever."

Laurence: Por "ter dado voz eloquente à Manitoba Prairie em sua série" Manawaka ", [além de falar] pelas tribos de toda a humanidade - mulheres, velhas e oprimidas por toda parte".

Canadian poetryIsabella Valancy Crawford For being the first to attempt the "arduous intellectual journey," that "her verse [must trek the wide] distance to be traversed from the servile copy to the work which, though it may originate in a fertile hint of method or suggestion of thought in some foreign source, is still the authentic utterance of a single mind." Costa Rican poetryEunice Odio For being "the country’s most significant international literary presence." English literatureGeoffrey Chaucer

Frances Burney

Chaucer: For writing The Canterbury Tales.

BURNEY: Por ser considerado como tal por Virginia Woolf, em parte "por promover a popularidade do romance de namoro e a possibilidade de as mulheres serem consideradas como romancistas do valor".

English poetryGeoffrey Chaucer Epic poetryHomer American film criticismPauline Kael For being "probably the most qualified critic in the world," per Jerry Lewis. Finnish written languageMikael Agricola German literatureGotthold Ephraim Lessing GrammarPāṇini Wrote the AshtadhyayiGreek tragedyAeschylus Harlem RenaissanceAlta Douglas (née Sawyer)

Jessie Redmon Fauset

Zora Neale Hurston

Douglas: For her "death had a special meaning… Alta and Aaron Douglas had formed the warm human center of a group of gifted black young men and women who had come together for the first time in New York… her passing marked definitely 'the closing of the ring' on the Harlem Renaissance," as considered by Arnold Rampersad.

FUASET: Por ser "professor, editor literário da crise e o autor, o célebre, há confusão, Fauset mostrou uma promessa séria como uma voz líder e impactante", bem como "selecionando as obras de ... Langston Hughes, Condee Cullen, Arna Bontemps, Claude McKay, Georgia Douglas Johnson, Mary Effie Lee e Jean Toomer para publicação ".

Modern Hebrew languageEliezer Ben Yehuda HorrorMary Shelley Wrote FrankensteinItalian languageDante Alighieri Italian literatureDante Alighieri IndologyAl-Biruni Letters (messages)Francis I of France Linguistics (early)Pāṇini Wrote the AshtadhyayiLinguistics (modern)

Ferdinand de Saussure Noam Chomsky

Modern fantasy literatureJ. R. R. Tolkien Modernist literatureGertrude Stein For the "[incorporation of the] stream-of-consciousness and experimental narrative techniques," into her work. NovelHomer Nuyorican literatureEsmeralda SantiagoFor writing When I Was Puerto Rican, considered by Oprah's Book Club as "one of the “Best Memoirs of a Generation”." Puerto Rican literatureConcha Meléndez

Alejandro Tapia y Rivera

Science fictionOctavia E. Butler

Ursula K. Le Guin

Mary Shelley

Lucian de Samosata

Julio Verne

H. G. Wells

Science fiction magazineHugo Gernsback Spanish languageAntonio de Nebrija Spanish literatureCarmen Balcells

Miguel de Cervantes

Balcells: For being the literary agent of Spanish-language authors from Spain and Latin America, including six Nobel Prize–winning authors and one of the main promoters of the Latin American Boom.

Cervantes: para escrever Don Quixote.

Spanish travel literatureEgeria For writing Itinerarium Egeriae ("Travels of Egeria"), the first record of a Christian pilgrimage in the 4th century. UrduMaulvi Abdul Haq Venezuelan literatureJosé Antonio Ramos Sucre Venezuelan poetryJosé Antonio Ramos Sucre


SubjectFather / motherReasonCivil lawJustinian ILegal writing educationMarjorie D. Rombauer For "[writing] the first legal writing textbook, Legal Problem Solving: Analysis, Research, and Writing in 1970," and through her "[teaching] at the University of Washington School of Law for over thirty years [as] the first non-librarian, tenured female faculty member," her "works on legal problem solving, research, writing, and analysis informed generations of law students." European patent lawKurt Haertel International lawAlberico GentiliFrancisco de VitoriaHugo GrotiusFor speculating on human rights and the proper relations that ought to exist between nationsRussian jurisprudenceSemyon Efimovich Desnitsky Russian social and political theorist (18th century)United States ConstitutionJames Madison He played a large role in its drafting and ratification. One of the authors of The Federalist. Also drafter of the Bill of Rights.


Veja também: apelidos honoríficos na música popular
SubjectFather / motherReasonAmerican musicStephen Foster Recognized internationally for his compositions which are still being performed in various venues. His most notable works include Oh Susanna, Camptown Races and Old Folks at Home.American piano manufactureJonas Chickering BluesMa Rainey Bluegrass musicBill Monroe Chicago blues / electric bluesMuddy Waters Contemporary a cappellaDeke Sharon Country musicJimmie Rodgers Death metalChuck Schuldiner DiscoMel Cheren (Godfather) Giorgio Moroder English cathedral musicThomas Tallis FunkGeorge Clinton ("Godfather") Gospel music Thomas A. Dorsey Gothic rockPeter Murphy ("Godfather") G-FunkDr. Dre[citation needed]Greek musicTerpander GrungeNeil Young Heavy metalOzzy Osbourne/Tony Iommi Both are also known as "godfathers of heavy metal".Italo discoAlexander Robotnick (Godfather) Punk rockPatti Smith (godmother) JazzBuddy BoldenJelly Roll MortonTheodore August Metz Modern jazz pianoEarl "Fatha" Hines Puerto Rican musicManuel Gregorio Tavárez ReggaeFrederick "Toots" Hibbert[citation needed]Rock and rollChuck Berry Rock music in ChinaCui Jian Soul musicJames Brown (godfather) Symphony and string quartetJoseph Haydn Thrash metalJames Hetfield Venezuelan musicSimón Díaz

Antonio Lauro

Vicente Emilio Sojo

Arte performática

SubjectFather / motherReasonKabukiIzumo no OkuniVogueWilli Ninja Godfather

Filosofia e religião

Veja também: Lista de fundadores de tradições religiosas e pais da igreja
SubjectFather / motherReasonAlt-rightMichelle Malkin AnarchismMikhail Bakunin

Emma Goldman

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon

AntifeminismPhyllis Schlafly AsceticismSyncletica of Alexandria AuthoritarianismIndira Gandhi For her declaration of The Emergency.BehaviorismJohn B. Watson Chinese democracyWei Jingsheng Comparative religionAl-Biruni and Ibn Hazm ConservatismEdmund Burke Cynicism (school of thought)Diogenes of Sinope EpicureanismEpicurus EpistemologyXenophanes ExistentialismSimone de Beauvoir

Søren Kierkegaard

FascismMargherita Sarfatti For being "Benito Mussolini's mistress, [becoming] his ideological companion, [planning] the 'March on Rome' with him, [writing] articles in his name, [editing] the Fascist Party organ and [writing] his first official biography." Faith missionsAnthony Norris Groves FeminismMary Wollstonecraft HumanismPetrarch Islamic logicAl-Farabi LiberalismJohn Locke

Baruch Spinoza

American libertarianismRose Wilder Lane

Isabel Paterson

Ayn Rand

Lane: For "reigniting a passion for liberal ideas in her numerous columns alongside her masterwork, The Discovery of Freedom."

Paterson: Para "[opondo -se] a maioria dos programas do New Deal sendo instituídos por Franklin D. Roosevelt [, defendendo] por menos envolvimento do governo em questões sociais e fiscais [, e continuando] para escrever" o deus da máquina ", a Defesa do individualismo como fonte de progresso social e político.

Rand: por reivindicar os "Libertários como" plágio de [suas] idéias "."

Logical positivismMoritz Schlick MethodismJohn Wesley Moral philosophyThomas Aquinas ObjectivismAyn Rand PositivismClotilde de Vaux Protestantism (Lutheranism)Martin LutherKatharina Zell Zell: For her "prolific work [been considered] as some of the Reformation period’s exemplary writings." Religious toleranceAnne Hutchinson ScholasticismJohn Scotus Eriugena

Lanfranc de Canterburyanselm de Canterburypeter Abelard

Livro: sic et non

Scholasticism (Protestant)Hugo Grotius SocialismKarl MarxRobert OwenChrista Wolf ThomismThomas Aquinas TranscendentalismMary Moody Emerson

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Margaret Fuller

Anne Hutchinson

Henry David Thoreau

Moody Emerson: for instilling in her nephew to "look within, reflect, but [to] do it with much reading, study."

Fuller: Para viver "toda a sua vida [com] incursões corajosas e intelectualmente brilhantes para encontrar melhores respostas, respostas temperadas por triunfos e trabalhos".

Hutchinson: Por ser "um curandeiro e um pregador de uma religião gentil e otimista do coração ... [que] culminou em uma revolta cultural".

ZionismTheodor Herzl