Esboço da arquitetura clássica


Visão geral e guia tópico para arquitetura clássica
A Acrópole de Atenas, um patrimônio mundial em Atenas, Grécia

O contorno a seguir é fornecido como uma visão geral e guia tópica da arquitetura clássica:

Arquitetura clássica - Arquitetura da antiguidade clássica, isto é, arquitetura grega antiga e a arquitetura da Roma Antiga. Também se refere ao estilo ou estilos de arquitetura influenciados por eles. Por exemplo, a maioria dos estilos originários da Europa pós-renascentista pode ser descrita como arquitetura clássica. Esse amplo uso do termo é empregado por Sir John Summerson na linguagem clássica da arquitetura.

Que tipo de coisa é a arquitetura clássica?

A arquitetura clássica pode ser descrita como todos os seguintes:

Architecture – both the process and product of planning, designing and construction. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.Architectural style – classification of architecture in terms of the use of form, techniques, materials, time period, region and other stylistic influences.Art – aesthetic expression for presentation or performance, and the work produced from this activity. The word "art" is therefore both a verb and a noun, as is the term "classical architecture".One of the arts – as an art form, classical architecture is an outlet of human expression, that is usually influenced by culture and which in turn helps to change culture. Classical architecture is a physical manifestation of the internal human creative impulse.A branch of the visual arts – visual arts is a class of art forms, including painting, sculpture, photography, architecture and others, that focus on the creation of works which are primarily visual in nature.Form of classicism – high regard in the arts for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate.Classicism in architecture – places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of Classical antiquity and in particular, the architecture of Ancient Rome, of which many examples remained.

Estruturas arquitetônicas clássicas

Informações adicionais: Lista de registros arquitetônicos gregos e romanos

Estruturas arquitetônicas gregas antigas

Arquitetura grega antiga-Arquitetura produzida pelas pessoas de língua grega (pessoas helênicas) cuja cultura floresceu no continente grego e pelo Peloponeso, nas ilhas do mar Egeu e nas colônias na Ásia Menor e na Itália por um período de cerca de 900 aC até o século I DC , com os primeiros trabalhos arquitetônicos restantes que datam de cerca de 600 aC. A arquitetura grega antiga é mais conhecida de seus templos, e o Parthenon é um excelente exemplo.

AcropolisAcropolis of AthensAgoraAncient Agora of AthensAncient Greek temple – List of Ancient Greek templesAdytonCellaOpisthodomosPeristasisPronaosPteronTypes of templeAmphiprostyleAntae templeMetroonNaiskosPeripterosPseudodipteralPseudoperipterosAncient Greek theatre – List of ancient Greek theatresParodosSkeneBouleuterionGreek bathsGreek gardensGymnasiumConisteriumXystusHeroönHippodromeMausoleumMonopterosNeorionPalaestraPeribolosPropylaeaProstylePrytaneionPteronRostral columnStadiumStoa – List of stoaeTholos

Estruturas arquitetônicas romanas antigas

A arquitetura romana antiga-a revolução arquitetônica romana, também conhecida como Revolução Concreta, foi o uso generalizado na arquitetura romana das formas arquitetônicas anteriormente usadas do arco, cofre e cúpula. Um fator crucial nesse desenvolvimento que viu uma tendência à arquitetura monumental foi a invenção do concreto romano (também chamado Opus Caementicium).

Public architectureAmphitheatre – List of Roman amphitheatresAqueduct – List of aqueducts in the city of Rome, List of aqueducts in the Roman Empire, and List of Roman aqueducts by dateBasilicaBridge – List of Roman bridgesCanal – List of Roman canalsCastellumCircus – List of Roman circusesCistern – List of Roman cisternsDams and reservoirs – List of Roman dams and reservoirsDefensive wallDome – List of Roman domesForumHippodromeHorreumHypaethralInsulaMonument – List of ancient monuments in Rome, List of monuments of the Roman ForumNymphaeumObelisk – List of obelisks in RomeOdeonRoman lighthouseRoman watermillRostraTemple – List of Ancient Roman templesAntae templeMithraeumTetrapylonTheatre – List of Roman theatresCaveaScaenae fronsThermae – List of Roman public bathsSphaeristeriumTholosTriumphal arch – List of Roman triumphal archesVictory columnRostral columnPrivate architectureDomusAtriumCavaediumCoenaculumCubiculumExedraFaucesImpluviumOecusPeristyliumTabernaTablinumTricliniumVestibulumRoman gardensVillaVilla rustica

Estilos arquitetônicos

Estilo arquitetônico

Byzantine architecture – initially, the early Byzantine architecture was stylistically and structurally indistinguishable from earlier Roman architecture; the ancient ways of building lived on, but relatively soon the architecture developed into a distinct Byzantine style.Pre-Romanesque architecture –Romanesque architecture – Romanesque architecture is the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman architecture. Combining features of ancient Roman and Byzantine buildings and other local traditions, Romanesque architecture is known by its massive quality.Gothic architecture – Gothic architecture (with which classical architecture is often posed), can incorporate classical elements and details, but does not to the same degree reflect a conscious effort to draw upon the architectural traditions of antiquity.Renaissance architecture – is a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts, as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture, of which many examples remained. The classical architecture of the Renaissance from the outset represents a highly specific interpretation of the classical ideas.Palladian architecture – European style of architecture derived from the designs of the Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580). Palladio's work was strongly based on the symmetry, perspective and values of the formal classical temple architecture of the Ancient Greeks and Romans.Baroque architecture – Baroque and Rococo architecture are styles which, although classical at root, display an architectural language very much in their own right. Baroque architects took the basic elements of Renaissance architecture and made them higher, grander, more decorated, and more dramatic.Georgian architecture – set of architectural styles current between 1720 and 1840. In the mainstream of Georgian style were both Palladian architecture— and its whimsical alternatives, Gothic and Chinoiserie, which were the English-speaking world's equivalent of European Rococo.Neoclassical architecture – architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque. In its purest form it is a style principally derived from the architecture of Classical Greece and the architecture of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio.Empire style – sometimes considered the second phase of Neoclassicism, is an early-19th-century design movement in architecture, furniture, other decorative arts, and the visual arts followed in Europe and America until around 1830, although in the U. S. it continued in popularity in conservative regions outside the major metropolitan centers well past the mid-19th century.Biedermeier architecture – neoclassical architecture in Central Europe between 1815 and 1848.Resort architecture (Bäderarchitektur) – a specific neoclassical style that came up at the end of the 18th century in German seaside resorts and is widely used in the region until today.Federal architecture – classicizing architecture built in the United States between c. 1780 and 1830, and particularly from 1785 to 1815. This style shares its name with its era, the Federal Period.Regency architecture – buildings built in Britain during the period in the early 19th century when George IV was Prince Regent, and also to later buildings following the same style. The style corresponds to the Biedermeier style in the German-speaking lands, Federal style in the United States and to the French Empire style.Greek Revival architecture – architectural movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, predominantly in Northern Europe and the United States. A product of Hellenism, it may be looked upon as the last phase in the development of Neoclassical architecture.Beaux-Arts architecture –Nordic Classicism – style of architecture that briefly blossomed in the Nordic countries (Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland) between 1910 and 1930.New Classical Architecture – architectural movement to revive and embrace classical architecture as a legitimate form of architecture for the 20th and 21st centuries. Beginning first with Postmodern architecture's criticism of modernist architectural movements like International Style, New Classical architecture seeks to be an alternative to the ongoing dominance of Modern architecture.

Elementos arquitetônicos

Elementos de construção

Acroterion – ornament mounted at the apex of the pediment of a buildingAedicula – small inset shrineAegisAmphiprostyleAnathyrosisAntaAntefixApollariumApseArchArchitraveArchivoltArrisAtlas – male figure supportBracketBucraniumCapitalCaryatid – female figure supportCippusCofferColonnade – long sequence of columns, joined together by their entablatureColumnCorbelCornerstoneCorniceCrepidomaCrocketCryptoporticusCupolaDecastyleDiaulosDiocletian (thermal) windowDome – List of Roman domesEisodosEntablature – superstructure resting on the column capitalsEpistyle – see ArchitraveEuthynteriaFinialFriezeGeisonGuttaHypocaustHypostyleHypotracheliumImbrex and tegula – interlocking roof tiles used in ancient Greek and Roman architectureIntercolumniationKeystoneMetopeModillionMosaicOculusOrnamentOrthostatesPedimentPeristylePilae stacksPilaster – flat surface raised from the wall to resemble a columnPlinthPorticoPortico types: tetrastyle, hexastyle, octastyle, decastylePost and lintelPronaosProstylePutealQuoin – masonry blocks in a wall's cornerRoof – List of Greco-Roman roofsRusticationScamilli imparesSemi-domeSimaSphinxSpiral stairs – List of ancient spiral stairsSpurStoa – covered walkway or porticoStylobateSuspensuraTambourTermTriglyphTympanumTaeniaVelariumVitruvian openingVoluteVomitorium

Materiais de construção

AggregateCeramicLime mortarMarbleRoman brickRoman concreteSpoliaTerracotta

Ordens clássicas

Ordens clássicas

Aeolic order – an early order of Classical architectureGreek ordersDoric orderIonic orderCorinthian orderRoman ordersComposite orderTuscan order

Tipos de edifícios e estruturas

AmphitheatreBathhouseGreekRomanBouleuterionNymphaeumOdeonStoaTempleGreekRomanTheaterGreekRomanTholosTreasuryVillaWatermill – List of ancient watermills

Organizações de arquitetura clássica

The Institute of Classical Architecture and Art

Publicações de arquitetura clássica

De architectura – treatise on architecture written by the Roman architect Vitruvius and dedicated to his patron, the emperor Caesar Augustus, as a guide for building projects. The work is one of the most important sources of modern knowledge of Roman building methods, planning, and design.De re aedificatoria – classic architectural treatise written by Leon Battista Alberti between 1443 and 1452. Although largely dependent on Vitruvius' De architectura, it was the first theoretical book on the subject written in the Italian Renaissance and in 1485 became the first printed book on architecture.The Five Orders of Architecture (1562) by Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola.I quattro libri dell'architettura (1570) – a treatise on architecture by the architect Andrea Palladio.The Classical Language of Architecture, a 1965 compilation of six BBC radio lectures given in 1963 by Sir John Summerson.

Pessoas influentes na arquitetura clássica

John Summerson – one of the leading British architectural historians of the 20th century.John Travlos – Greek architectural historian, author.

Veja também

Architecture portal
Architectural glossaryIndex of architecture articlesTable of years in architectureTimeline of architecture