Religião é a adesão a crenças e rituais codificados que geralmente envolvem uma fé de natureza espiritual e um estudo de tradições ancestrais herdadas, conhecimentos e sabedorias relacionados à compreensão da vida humana. O termo "religião" refere-se tanto às práticas pessoais relacionadas à fé quanto aos sistemas de crença compartilhados mais amplos. Um sistema de crenças pode se referir a uma religião ou a uma visão de mundo. Uma visão de mundo (ou cosmovisão) é um termo derivado da palavra alemã Weltanschauung ([ˈvɛlt.ʔanˌʃaʊ.ʊŋ] (help·info)) Welt é a palavra alemã para 'mundo', e Anschauung é a palavra alemã para 'visão' ou 'perspectivas'. É um conceito fundamental para a filosofia e epistemologia alemãs e remete a uma ampla percepção do mundo. Além disso, refere-se ao quadro de ideias e crenças através do qual um indivíduo interpreta o mundo e interage nele.


Religion – collection of cultural systems, belief systems, and worldviews that establishes symbols that relate humanity to spirituality and sometimes to moral values.
  • World's religions:
    • Abrahamic religions:
      • Judaism – "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people. Originating in the Hebrew Bible (also known as the Tanach) and explored in later texts such as the Talmud, it is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship God developed with the Children of Israel.
        • Jewish law – the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
      • Christianity – monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings.
        • Jesus – the founder of Christianity
        • Bible – the holy text of Christianity
        • Catholicism – Catholicism is the largest denomination of Christianity. It holds that its Bishops are the successors of the Apostles of Jesus and its Pope the successor of St Peter, and Mary the mother of Jesus is venerated. The term Catholicism broadly denotes the varying body of traditions, nations, demographics and behaviours generally subscribed to the Faith.
          • Catholic canon law
          • Catholic ecumenical councils
          • Heresies in the Catholic Church
        • Protestantism – Protestantism is a broad term, usually used for Christians who are not of the Catholic, Anglican, or Eastern Churches. However, some consider Anglicanism to be Protestant, and some consider Radical Reformism not to be Protestant.
        • The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints – The largest denomination of the Latter Day Saint movement, an American restorationist movement. Members are known as "Mormons".
          • Book of Mormon – the earliest distinctive scripture of the Latter Day Saint movement.
            • Joseph Smith – the founding Prophet of the Latter Day Saint movement.
      • Islam – monotheistic religion articulated by the Quran, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of one God, Allah (Arabic: الله Allāh), and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of Hadith) of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of Allah.
      • Baháʼí Faith – a monotheistic religion founded by Baháʼu'lláh in the 19th century, proclaims Spiritual unity of mankind
    • East Asian religions:
      • Taoism – a religious and philosophical tradition of Chinese origin with an emphasis on living in harmony with, and in accordance to the natural flow or cosmic structural order of the universe commonly referred to as the Tao.The Tao Te Ching, along with the Zhuangzi, is a fundamental text for both philosophical and religious Taoism. Laozi is traditionally regarded as one of the founders of Taoism and is closely associated in this context with "original" or "primordial" Taoism.
    • Indian religions:
      • Buddhism – religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha (Pāli/Sanskrit "the awakened one").
      • Hinduism – predominant and indigenous religious tradition), amongst many other expressions.
        • Ayyavazhi – Henotheistic belief that originated in South India. It is cited as an independent monistic religion by several newspapers, government reports and academic researchers. In Indian censuses, however, the majority of its followers declare themselves as Hindus. Therefore, Ayyavazhi is also considered a Hindu denomination.
      • Sikhism – monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab region, on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and ten successive Sikh Gurus (the last teaching being the holy scripture Guru Granth Sahib Ji).
    • Contemporary Paganism – a contemporary set of beliefs modelled on the ancient pagan religions (usually of Europe or the Near East).
  • Religious debates:
    • Creation–evolution controversy – recurring theological and cultural-political dispute about the origins of the Earth, humanity, life, and the universe, between the proponents of various forms of abiogenesis, and proponents of the various forms of special creation. In both cases, there is limited scientific support for any origin of life hypothesis. The dispute particularly involves the field of evolutionary biology, but also the fields of geology, palaeontology, thermodynamics, nuclear physics and cosmology.
  • Religious issues:
    • Theology – systematic and rational study of religion and its influences and of the nature of religious truths, or the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies, usually at a university or school of divinity or seminary.
      • Christian theology – enterprise to construct a coherent system of Christian belief and practice based primarily upon the texts of the Old Testament and the New Testament as well as the historic traditions of the faithful. Christian theologians use biblical exegesis, rational analysis, and argument to clarify, examine, understand, explicate, critique, defend or promote Christianity.
    • Death – end of physical life
  • Irreligion – absence of religious belief, or indifference or hostility to religion, or active rejection of religious traditions.
    • Atheism – rejection of belief in the existence of deities. In a narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities. Most inclusively, atheism is simply the absence of belief that any deities exist. Atheism is contrasted with theism, which in its most general form is the belief that at least one deity exists.
    • Secular humanism – embraces human reason, ethics, and justice while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience or superstition as the basis of morality and decision-making.
  • Spirituality – can refer to an ultimate or an alleged immaterial reality; an inner path enabling a person to discover the essence of their being; or the "deepest values and meanings by which people live."